An initial coin offering (ICO) is a type of capital-raising activity in the cryptocurrency and blockchain environment. The ICO can be viewed as an initial public offering (IPO) that uses cryptocurrencies. However, it is not the most precise comparison, as there are some crucial differences between the two fundraising activities. Startups primarily use an ICO is to raise capital.

The two forms of initial coin offers are outlined below:

1. Private ICO

In private initial coin offerings, only a restricted number of investors may participate in the process. Generally, only authorised investors (financial institutions and high net-worth people) can participate in private ICOs, and a firm can opt to establish a minimum investment amount.

2. Public ICOs

Population initial coin offerings are a kind of crowdfunding that targets the broader public. The public offering is a democratised type of investment since virtually anybody may become an investor. However, because to regulatory issues, private ICOs are becoming a more realistic choice relative to public sales.

The growth of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology is helping raise the appeal of ICOs. In 2017, more over $7 billion was raised through ICOs. In 2018, the figure almost doubled. The largest ICO to date was completed by Telegram, an instant messaging services provider. During a private ICO, the UK-registered business raised approximately $1.7 billion.

How Does an ICO Work?

An initial coin offering is a difficult procedure that needs a profound knowledge of technology, finance, and the law. In short, ICOs may be defined as capital-raising operations that include exploiting the decentralised systems of blockchain technology in order to place the interests of stakeholders on an equal playing field. Here is the procedure for an ICO:

The process of identifying potential investment prospects

Every ICO begins with the purpose of raising funds for the firm. Target investors are targeted for the firm's fundraising effort and are provided with pertinent company or project information to target them.

The process of generating tokens

Once a coin offering has begun, the following stage is to generate tokens. By creating digital tokens, a blockchain represents an asset or utility. Fungible and tradeable tokens are used in this system. Do not be mistaken as to whether the tokens are a type of cryptocurrency. They are adaptations of current cryptocurrencies. While stocks may give an equity ownership in a corporation, tokens do not. The vast majority of tokens on the market provide their owners with a portion of a company's goods or service.

The tokens are produced on blockchain platforms that have been mentioned. Creating tokens is far simpler than creating new currencies, since there is no need to develop the code from start. Rather, current blockchain systems, such as Ethereum, which run current cryptocurrencies, support the generation of tokens with little variation in the code.

A company's promotion effort

At the same time, most companies use a promotion effort to increase the number of investors they can access. In order to attain the largest number of investors, the campaigns are usually run online. Although numerous huge platforms, including as Facebook and Google, now prohibit ICO advertising, ICOs are widely popular.

The start of a marketing campaign

Once the tokens are created, they are made available to investors. The amount may be paid over time rather than in one large payment. The firm will then be able to create a new product or service using the cash from the ICO, while investors will have the option to utilise the purchased tokens to gain from this product/service or anticipate token value to increase.

Initial Coin Offering Regulations

A brand new concept for the financial and technological worlds is known as an initial coin offering (ICO). Since the advent of ICOs, the capital-raising process has seen a dramatic change. But regulators worldwide were not ready for the new fundraising paradigm to be introduced into finance.

Some governments regulate ICOs differently. China and South Korea ban ICOs as an example. ICOs are in the process of being created and governed in a number of European nations, as well as the United States and Canada.

There are already established rules for ICOs in places like Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, and the United Arab Emirates, which have previously issued guidelines for it (UAE).


The first decentralised and permissionless crowdfunding (DFC) platform to employ the new and interesting type of IDO is an innovative method of gathering funds for projects in the crypto sector.

An IDO, which is often called a CLO, refers to a project that will issue a coin or token on a decentralised liquidity market. A pool-based exchange like this only works if there is enough liquidity to go around. The pairing USDT/ETH, for instance, is a liquid pair.

IDOs are successors to ICOs, STOs, and ICOs (IEOs). The IDOs are the perfect solution for new projects and companies who want to issue a token and receive rapid funding.

By avoiding a pre-mine, which favours project founders above the community, IDOs are widely regarded a fair approach to establish a new cryptocurrency project.

The first ICO was Mastercoin's July 2013 offering. In 2014, Ethereum conducted a crowdsale, raising $2.3 million in the first 12 hours with its Ether token.

The first IEO (Initial Exchange Offering) was held on April 17, 2019, and it took place on the Idax, BitForex, Bit-Z, and Bit-M exchanges. Although, in June 2019, Raven Protocol unveiled the first-ever IDO which would be listed on Binance DEX, Raven Protocol had declared in June 2019 that they were launching the IDO, which had never been done before.

Although the Raven Protocol team maintains that they were unaware of IDO's existence when they began the project, they credit it as a successful endeavour.

This is a decentralised and distributed deep-learning training system that incorporates deep neural networks. The Raven Protocol is doing everything it can to provide cost-effective and speedy solutions that leverage the blockchain to improve AI and machine learning. To provide compensation for contributing their computer resources, participants can earn RAVEN tokens while the utility token is utilised for AI training.

Even though the project's IDO was initially unstable, the Universal Market Access (UMA) protocol successfully launched. For creators of DeFi platforms, it provides a way to establish synthetic assets on Ethereum, which are backed by collateral and can alter in value. The project started its ICO in April via Uniswap, an Ethereum-based decentralised exchange, which was selling its tokens for $0.26 each. The pricing worked because UMA used $535,000 worth of Ethereum in a newly formed liquidity pool.

Additionally, token pricing on Uniswap uses a bonding curve instead of order books, which helps to explain why the price of the UMA token rose so rapidly. The fact that traders paid greater gas expenses in order to stay ahead of other dealers ultimately led to the price of UMA tokens increasing by more than $2 minutes after the ICO had begun. Stabilized at around $1.00 with some buyers saying they paid more than investors who bought in advance. This illustrates the problem with Uniswap, and not UMA.

Even though it first faced adversity, UMA is presently valued at over $1.5 billion, with one token being priced at over $25.

Similar to the last example, another option for exchanging your crypto assets is SushiSwap, a decentralised exchange built on Ethereum. SushiSwap aims to become the most popular Ethereum-based decentralised exchange, replacing Uniswap. Over $1.14 billion in Uniswap's locked crypto assets were purportedly transferred over to the SushiSwap platform in September.